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By Paul Friedrich

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Distribution of Picea in the late Holocene (from Nejshtadt) Eighteen Arboreal Units The Junipers and Cedars: *el-w-nnates, the following points are most relevant. First, the liquid and the w-stem formative of the Armenian matches the Slavic. Second, the alternation of initial e/o is shared by other tree names (compare the alder and the second yew name). Last, the -in- of Armenian corresponds to the -en- of some Slavic forms such as White Russian jelenets; both are reflexes of a PIE suffix that is also found, for example, in the term for ash.

The more usual association is between sphyd- as the front oar in contradistinction to aritra- as the back or stern oar; sphyd may also have denoted a pole for poling boats (the common denominator for pole and front oar being that both are used to propel). The second denotation of the Indic forms is that of shovel, or some other agricultural tool, and the third denotation is shoulder blade. Apparent reflexes with the meanings both of shovel and of shoulder blade have been found in modern Indic languages such as Nepali, and also in modern Iranian (Wakhi @k, "shoulder," Persian fah, "oar, paddle").

All site reports for central and eastern Europe and the north Caucasus from about 3500 and 1500 and carefully recording all the genera and species identified by archaeologists, paleobotanists, and other scientists. TAELE 2 SYNOPTIC VICWOF I~PORTANT REFLEXES IN THE TWELVESTOCKS %b- 1. ) berlza bdrEaa 2. ) 3. Greek froxinus 4. Italic (Cl. ) 5. Celtic 6. Germanic 7. Indic 8. Iranian 9. Albanian 10. Armenian 11. ) 12. Tocharian 1. w. 2. ) 3. Greek 4. Italic (Cl. dw lisrprs verbera Abella niz, picea Umb.

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