Download Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical by David J. Stensrud PDF

By David J. Stensrud

Numerical climate prediction versions play an more and more very important function in meteorology, either in brief- and medium-range forecasting and international weather switch reviews. crucial elements of any numerical climate prediction version are the subgrid-scale parameterization schemes, and the research and realizing of those schemes is a key element of numerical climate prediction. This ebook presents in-depth explorations of the main wide-spread different types of parameterization schemes that impression either short-range climate forecasts and worldwide weather versions. numerous parameterizations are summarised and in comparison, via a dialogue in their barriers. evaluation questions on the finish of every bankruptcy let readers to observe their figuring out of the themes lined, and options can be found to teachers at this may be a necessary reference for tutorial researchers, meteorologists, climate forecasters, and graduate scholars attracted to numerical climate prediction and its use in climate forecasting.

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Thus, there are diffusivities for momentum (eddy viscosity), heat (eddy conductivity), and water vapor (eddy diffusivity), and for other variables that are influenced by turbulent motions, such as carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane. 2. While the resistance to heat flux rH has been defined, it has not yet been expressed mathematically. In earlier meteorological models, heat flux is typically calculated in terms of bulk transfer coefficients that are multiplied by the wind speed. Even from everyday experiences of living and breathing within the atmospheric surface layer, the lowest 10–40 m above ground level, it is clear that wind gusts act to remove the hotter air that develops near the ground.

4). Other parts of the steep terrain may be oriented nearly perpendicular to the direct beam of the solar radiation during certain parts of the year, and thereby receive more solar radiation than expected from a flat surface at these times. Thus, gradients in the incoming solar radiation can be quite large when the terrain is complex, and can feed back and influence the vegetation that survives (Fig. 5). 2 Albedo (a) Albedo is the fraction (0 to 1) of the incoming solar radiation that is reflected upward from the Earth’s surface.

Therefore, longwave radiation has very little overlap with the wavelength spectrum associated with incoming solar radiation. Since the intensity of longwave radiation is explained by the Stefan–Boltzmann law, it is influenced most strongly by the temperature of the ground surface and by the value of surface emissivity (the power emitted by a body at temperature T to the power emitted by a blackbody at temperature T). Of course, the ground surface temperature is influenced by incoming solar radiation, albedo, downwelling longwave radiation, soil type, soil moisture, and the temperature of the soil below the ground surface.

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