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By Paul M Kintner; et al

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17, 494–500 Martyn, D. F. (1951), The theory of magnetic storms and auroras, Nature, 167, 92–94. Martyn, D. F. (1953), Geo-morphology of F-region ionospheric storms, Nature, 171, 14–16. Matuura, N. (1963), Thermal effect on the ionospheric F region disturbance, J. Radio Res. Lab. Japan, 10, 1–35. Matuura, N. (1972), Theoretical models of ionospheric storms, Space Sci. , 13, 124–189. Maurain, Ch. , 5, 483–487. Mendillo, M. (2006), Storms in the ionosphere: Patterns and pro­ cesses for total electron content, Rev.

Formation Processes of the Mid-Latitude Trough— Geomagnetically Active Periods During geomagnetically active periods, the detailed morphology of troughs becomes much more difficult to predict, although the physics remains essentially the same. The basic differences are that the cross-polar cap electric field is usually increasing, and the auroral oval is expanding. The fundamental problem is that the spatial and temporal variations of critical processes, particularly the electric fields, are not sufficiently well known to allow accurate modeling to be undertaken.

Jarvis, R. I. Kressman, M. Pinnock, A. S. Rodger, and K. H. Wright (1982), Ionospheric troughs in Antarctica, Nature, 295, 307–308. Dudeney, J. , A. S. Rodger, and M. J. , 18, 927–936. Foster, J. , and W. J. Burke (2002), SAPS: A new categorization of sub-auroral electric fields, Eos Trans. AGU, 83, 393–394. Foster, J. , and H. B. Vo (2002), Average characteristics and activity dependence of the subauroral polarization stream, J. Geophys. 1029/2002JA009409. Foster, J. , A. J. Coster, P. J. Erickson, J.

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