Download Physics of the human body by Julian V. Noble PDF

By Julian V. Noble

Within the materialistic view we regard residing organisms as vastly advanced collections of subject, able to powering convinced chemical reactions with loose energy4 from exterior resources. those reactions comprise synthesizing the structural parts of the organism itself, in addition to producing new independent organisms of a similar trend, i.e., replica. Self-replication is the foremost contrast among residing organisms and inanimate matter.
Our psychological version of a residing organism is consequently a type of desktop. during this feel, dwelling organisms are the main advanced machines we all know of, and accordingly in lots of methods now not in particular amenable to the equipment of physics.

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New York, 1963). 3. P. A. , Reading, MA, 1972). 1. The First Law of Thermodynamics We imagine a system such as a gas, where temperature, pressure and density are the appropriate system-defining variables. Then conservation of energy states that the following differential relationship must hold: dU = dQ − dW (1) where dQ represents (a small amount of) heat flowing into the system from some heat source; dW the mechanical work done by the system, and dU the change in internal energy. The quantity U depends, by assumption, only on the present state of the system and not on the history of how the system got into that state.

That is, the energy required to operate our kidneys is a non-trivial fraction of the total energy budget of the human body. Suppose we apply a different method for estimating energy requirements, based on the measured blood flow to various organs in the resting human being. That is, the energy needed to maintain a concentration gradient against the process of diffusion in the opposite direction. Physics of the Human Body Chapter 5 47 Bioenergetics If we assume the energy requirements of each organ system in the table below is proportional to the blood volume that circulates through it, then we find the results shown in the third column of the table: Flow* (ml/min) Metabolism (Kcal/day) Liver, intestines, spleen Kidneys Brain Heart Skeletal muscles Skin 1400 480 1100 750 250 1200 500 380 260 90 410 170 Other organs Total 600 5800 210 2000 System * taken from McDonald’s Blood Flow in Arteries, 4th ed.

The inertial force is just, in crude dimensional terms, ma = ρ L3 v2 = ρL2v2 . L What about an organism the size of a bacterium? Here the length is 2 µ ≡ 2×10−6 m, the speed is 30 µ/s and ρ and η are as before. Reynolds’s number is thus 6×10−5 hence a germ’s life is dominated by viscosity. If a spherical bacterium moving at the above speed stops turning its propeller, we find3 1 dv 9η dv ⁄ dt ≡ = − , v dx 2ρa2 The viscous force is ηA ∂ux ∂y = η L2 v = ηLv . L the coasting distance is x = Their (dimensionless) ratio is therefore df ρav R = , η where a is a typical linear dimension.

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