Download Introduction to Hydrometeorology by J. P. Bruce and R. H. Clark (Auth.) PDF

By J. P. Bruce and R. H. Clark (Auth.)

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The Canadian Shield makes up about two-thirds of the area of Canada and its climate varies from temperate to subarctic. The average annual precipitation varies from about 40 in. in the east to 10 in. in the far northwest. The topography is dominated by numerous lakes scattered throughout the area and the ground is generally impervious with moderate but irregular gradients. Much of the precipitation appears as runoff because of the impervious ground and relatively small évapotranspiration losses.

Mean annual runoff may exceed 50 in. from fairly large watersheds, such as the Nass River Basin of about 6900 sq. mi. 7 shows that in all these regions, the seasonal high flow occurs in the spring or early summer as a result of the melting of accumulated winter snowfall, accompanied by rain. In the higher altitudes of the Canadian Cordillera, the high occurs in June, whereas on the Prairies and in eastern Canada, it is generally in May. Autumn and winter are seasons of generally low flows as a result of the depletion of groundwater reservoirs during the summer and the storage of precipitation on the ground in the form of snow.

In heavily forested basins the difference in wind from day to day will not be significant. In addition the net gain in short wave radiation will be further reduced. 10; It has been found that such equations yield excellent results in studies of snowmelt runoff from sizeable drainage basins, (9) even though the physical factors of forest cover, aspect, slope, snow quality and albedo may vary widely over the drainage area. However, in cases where large differences in elevation exist, more empirical approaches through temperature indices are often successful and more straightforward to apply.

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