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In summary, empirical evidence indicates that under certain circumstances cirrus can be initially generated with the aid of transient SLW-dominated cloud regions. Although the debate continues whether these highly supercooled cloud droplets freeze into ice crystals via the homogeneous or heterogeneous mechanism, it is revealing that SLW clouds appear to completely glaciate beginning at about -35°C, when the homogeneous freezing process starts to become important (Sassen and Dodd 1988). FARS cirrus cloud top temperature climatology demonstrates that visually identified cirrus clouds form infrequently with the aid of SLW.

1998), but they have been assigned other designations. The altostratus cloud is also ice dominated and often results from deepening cirrostratus, but it is classified as a mid-level cloud because of its considerable depth and dark appearance. Low-level ice clouds derived from glaciated water clouds often generate exceptional optical displays in Arctic and Antarctic regions (see Greenler 1980; Tape 1994). In comparison, complex halo/arc displays are rarely observed in cirrus, although the common 22° halo and associated arcs are frequent at many mid-latitude locations.

10). With regard to this last finding, we can now add that cirrus are characteristically gray emitters with e < 1 (see chapter 10). 6. Cirrus and Supercooled Liquid Water As for the assertion that the liquid phase may not be predominantly responsible for cirrus cloud formation and maintenance, there are three cases that need elaboration. The first is the production of anvil cirrus, where strong updrafts may raise frozen cloud drops from the lower cloud into the upper troposphere. Because this form of ice nucleation would cease by about -40°C, when haze particle homogeneous freezing would take over, it is likely that large ice particles from the lower portions of a cumulonimbus would soon settle out and not have a significant impact on the future anvil cirrus cloud in the maintenance stage.

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