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By Mohammed Bashir Salau

The literature on Atlantic slavery is wealthy with debts of plantation complexes within the Americas, yet up to now none were produced for West Africa. during this important examine, Mohammed Bashir Salau is helping to deal with this lacunae by means of the plantation operations at Fanisau in Hausaland, and within the procedure presents an leading edge examine one piece of the traditionally major Sokoto Caliphate. The case research calls into query the belief that servile associations in West Africa have been “serf villages” and never “slave plantations,” and argues that manumission was once much less universal, not less than within the Caliphate, than mostly believed. additionally, it offers proof at the key function of the emir of Kano (Abbas) and diverse retailers within the transition to groundnut cultivation and the numerous use of slave hard work through huge property holders within the early 20th century.

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This greatly increased capacity of the pits almost completely replaced the large fired-clay pots which had been used earlier. The large dyeing pit, which also lasted longer than the fired-clay pots, meant that large amounts of cloth could be dyed more economically than before. 70 All of these technical innovations not only enhanced textile production but also, especially in the face of increasing demand for Kano textiles, stimulated the demand for cotton and indigo. To meet this demand, more plantations were established.

In addition, Tuareg estate owners were expected to make appropriate gifts to the chiefs of the areas in which their holdings were located and to its ruler before setting out for home. 41 The influence of droughts on the growth of unfree labor is evident in Kano, where such historic harsh natural conditions as well as other financial problems normally forced many poor freemen who could barely eke out a living to sell their children into slavery or to embrace debt bondage for the survival of other kin/household members.

A. 59 These, and related studies, provide valuable insights into political and economic conditions within the Sokoto Caliphate. A. A. D. dissertations, as well as unpublished papers presented at conferences or seminars. 62 Most of these unpublished sources have similar strengths and limitations as the published works discussed earlier. It is significant to note at this point that although this study examines plantation development in Fanisau by drawing on the unpublished and published sources mentioned above, I did not possess the source material that will allow me to give a detailed comparison of the royal and private estates and to comprehensively explore, among other issues, the life and labor of the relatively few freeborn residents of the study area.

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