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By Ralph F. Keeling

This quantity covers themes referring to reactive atmospheric chemistry, pathways for cloth shipping in the surroundings, and exchanges with the land, biota, oceans, and good earth. The emphasis is on species of relevance to worldwide weather and worldwide chemical budgets, in addition to at the software of geochemical tools, reminiscent of isotope suggestions, for interpreting pathways and charges of fabric alternate in the surroundings and with different reservoirs. the subjects coated the following have lengthy histories, with regards to their significance for difficulties of worldwide weather switch, the ozone layers, and different worldwide affects on humanity.

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2001) analyzed in more detail why Br2 and BrCl are present in roughly equal concentrations (and why BrCl was much more abundant than Cl2), despite the fact that chlorine is 33 ,650 times more abundant than bromine in seawater. 5), and, probably most important, differences in the kinetics and thermodynamics between bromine and chlorine. Michalowski et al. (2000) calculated that the source of bromine from Br2 photolysis is about an order of magnitude larger than bromine release from BrCl after sunrise.

The reason is probably less transport to the site of air masses that had been in contact with the Arctic Ocean in 1996 than in 1995. Tarasick and Bottenheim (2002) investigated ozonesonde records from the 1990s to early 2000s and could identify ODEs at several stations in the Arctic. Differences in occurrence seem to be related to differences in average springtime surface temperatures. 59% per year. , 1998; Chance, 1998). In the southern hemisphere, after polar sunrise, enhanced VCDs of BrO were located in large patches between 778 S and 598 S, at the edge and equatorwards of the Antarctic continent over the ocean.

2002). Figure 5 shows monthly averages of BrO vertical columns in winter/spring for both hemispheres. , Siberia) is impressive. 3 Sources of Active Bromine Within a few years from the discovery of the ODEs, the BrO þ BrO catalytic reaction cycle was confirmed as the main sink for ozone. The main process leading to the release of reactive bromine to the atmosphere was more difficult to identify. It now appears that the main source for the reactive gaseous bromine compounds are chemical reactions in the snowpack and on top of fresh (one-year-old) sea ice.

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