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By Jack D. Forbes

Investigating the voyages of America's local peoples to the eu continent sooner than Columbus's 1492 arrival within the 'New World', this paintings paints an image of the varied and intricate societies that comprised the Americas prior to 1492 and divulges the extraordinary local American involvements in maritime exchange and exploration.

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Indd 27 6/23/11 12:03:14 PM Detailed currents of the Atlantic Ocean. From William B. Carpenter, “The Atlantic Ocean,” Werner Encyclopaedia (Akron: Werner, 1909), vol. 3, plate 1. indd 28 6/23/11 12:03:16 PM The Gulf Stream and Galway v 29 have spotted enough lumber to build a couple of skyscrapers.  . ”8 This is very significant, because human travelers, especially those who were used to following fish schools and studying the patterns of the sea, could have maintained both good speed and adequate food by following the interface zone along the west and north edges of the Stream.

5 The author then goes on to discuss seeds, plants, and animal life carried by the “Gulf Stream” to the west coast of Ireland and elsewhere, which we will discuss below in connection with other evidence of the impact of the Gulf Stream–North Atlantic Current on communication. ”6 This, then, may be the reason that some other writers are not certain about the nature of the Gulf Stream’s extension eastward. For our purposes, however, it is only necessary to stress that the winds from the west and the current both flow in an eastward direction, thus taking drifting boats or other floating objects directly towards Ireland and Europe, sometimes at great speed, as we shall see.

Even the inner shore of the largest island was a good place to look for driftwood. ” Dead persons often washed into Aran.  . ”23 Not surprisingly, Galway was very early known to the Mediterranean world and was a major port for the Portuguese and Spaniards during Colón’s lifetime. Tacitus wrote that Ireland was in constant communication with Spain, a fact that is not at all surprising in that the last conquerors of Ireland, the Gaels, arrived from Galicia in northwest Iberia. According to James Hardiman, Galway lay “particularly convenient” to contact with Spain.

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