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By Arnold, Matthew; LeRiche, Matthew

In July 2011 the Republic of South Sudan accomplished independence, concluding what were Africa's longest operating civil struggle. the method resulting in independence used to be pushed through the Sudan Peoples' Liberation circulation, a essentially Southern insurgent strength and political move cause on bringing in regards to the reformed team spirit of the full Sudan. during the complete Peace contract of 2005, a six 12 months peace method opened up within the kind of an meantime interval premised upon 'making solidarity beautiful' for the Sudan. A failed workout, it culminated in a virtually unanimous vote for independence via Southerners in a referendum held in January 2011. Violence has persevered considering, and a frightening probability for South Sudan has arisen - to have received independence purely to descend into its personal civil conflict, with the regime in Khartoum supporting and abetting factionalism to maintain the hot nation susceptible and weak. reaching a sturdy peace may be a huge problem, and resolving the problems that so infected Southerners traditionally - unsupportive governance, wide emotions of exploitation and marginalisation and fragile ethnic politics - will confirm South Sudan's good fortune or failure at statehood. a narrative of transformation and of victory opposed to the percentages, this booklet studies South Sudan's glossy historical past as a contested quarter and assesses the political, social and protection dynamics that may form its rapid destiny as Africa's most modern self sufficient state.

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Without the emergence of strong political leadership in the South, he was able to undermine steadily the Agreement’s key provisions. Meanwhile, he continued to use the Southerners in the army and the absence of open war in the South to redouble efforts against opponents in the centre and north, particularly the Islamists and Communists. Seen in this light, the return to war arose also from a failure of Southern political groups to reconcile and unite. Echoing Paysama, the head of the Southern Liberal Party many years before, Lagu later argued that the prospect of a single Southern Sudanese identity and political entity existing comfortably within a united but reformed Sudan was compromised by the inability of Southern political elites to act as a ‘Southern’ bloc and defend ‘Southern’ interests.

Overall, the tasks confronting the new state are profound: rationalising the institutions of governance, forming agreements regarding state-society relationships in the fractious aftermath of decades of war, and designing plans to resolve historic underdevelopment and layers upon layers of grievance. The purposes of the book Within these introductory parameters, this book will proceed to describe the transformation of Southern Sudan into South Sudan by reviewing its modern history and its basic structures of state, as well as social and political dynamics at independence.

57 Where he derived this statistic is unclear, but it frequently under34 THE SOUTHERN SUDAN QUESTION lined his assertion that Sudan was an African rather than an Arab state. 60 In contrast, the rigid secessionism of the 1960s had never achieved conclusive results; it was an absolutist goal that ultimately cost Southerners the political leverage needed to help them through internationally brokered peace negotiations. â•… Garang presented the clearest articulation of the SPLA/M’s strategy at its first National Convention in 1994, defining a series of five ‘models’ for possible outcomes to the war:61 1)╇a secular, democratic New Sudan 2)╇a transitory confederation leading to a New Sudan (Model 5) 3)╇the ‘Old Sudan’ dominated by Khartoum’s authoritarian regimes 4)╇a ‘united black African Sudan’ 5)╇Southern independence via referendum â•… The war’s objective was to secure Model 2 through a peace agreement; that is, to end the war and arrange a South Sudanese referendum on reformed unity or sovereignty.

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