By Wilford Zdunkowski

Concept and functions of radiative move for graduate scholars and researchers in meteorology and comparable sciences.

Best weather books

Atmospheric Dynamics

In his booklet, John eco-friendly provides a distinct own perception into the basics of fluid mechanics and atmospheric dynamics. Generations of scholars have benefited from his lectures, and this ebook, decades within the making, is the results of his vast instructing and learn event. the idea of fluid circulate has constructed to such an quantity that very complicated arithmetic and types are at present used to explain it, yet a few of the basic effects persist with from really uncomplicated issues: those vintage rules are derived right here in a unique, particular, and now and then even idiosyncratic, approach.

Additional info for Radiation in the Atmosphere: A Course in Theoretical Meteorology

Sample text

The photon budget equation ﬁnally results in the so-called radiative transfer equation (RTE) which is a linear integro-differential equation for the radiance Iν (r, Ω, t). Let us consider a six-dimensional (6-D) volume element in (x, y, z, ϑ, ϕ, ν)-space with side lengths ( x, y, z, ϑ, ϕ, ν). This volume element is assumed to be ﬁxed in time t. 1) where V = x y z is the ordinary volume element in space. In order to simplify the notation, the dependence of different variables on (r, Ω, t) will henceforth be omitted except where confusion is likely to occur.

For ease of notation the subscript ν will henceforth be omitted from all radiative quantities. 48) where B(s) = B(T (s)) is the Planck function which depends on frequency and local temperature. 48) will be motivated in the Appendix to this chapter. In a plane–parallel medium the only spatial variable is the altitude z. The direction of the radiation is deﬁned by the angle ϑ with respect to the z-axis and by the azimuth angle ϕ counted from an arbitrary origin. 4 The RTE for a horizontally homogeneous atmosphere 39 From the ﬁgure it is also seen that for upward directed radiance µ > 0 while for downward directed radiance µ < 0.

1 Mass ﬂux entering the left face and leaving the right face of a cube with volume d x d y dz. ∂ Nν ∂t insc ∂ Nν ∂t em : Scattering of photons with frequency ν and arbitrary direction Ω into the desired direction Ω (inscattering). : Emission of photons with frequency ν in direction Ω. The individual contributions of these processes to the photon budget equation will now be discussed in detail. 1 The exchange of photons The exchange of photons can be treated in analogy to the continuity equation for the mass in ﬂuid mechanics.