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By Julie Ann Racino

"This publication brings jointly the varied, specialist views of directors, researchers, and discusses the prime efforts of the earlier 3 many years within the box of incapacity and group providers. This accomplished booklet covers many components: idea and historical past; management; long term aid companies within the US; family members help providers; housing and neighborhood; employment and "adult day programs"; comparative Read more...

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Their roles became increasingly important in 2012 as organizations become heavily Medicaid funded. Most significant for community development has been the use of federal funds to improve institutional conditions. Improvements required a massive influx of funds for capital construction and renovations through the Intermediate Care Facility (ICF) program (Holburn 1992; Taylor and Searl 1987). For example, New York State reportedly spent a massive $300,000 annually per person in Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Mental Retardation (ICF-MR now ICF-IDD) which was three times the spending of the nearest other 26 ◾ Public Administration and Disability state (AARP 2012).

This view is consistent with the theory that “disability is both the cause and effect of poverty, affecting employment and quality of life of people with severe disabilities, particularly those who are racially or ethnically diverse” (Hughes and Avoke 2010, p. 5). For example, the newest asset building scheme to assist low income earners produced unintended side effects because the government continues to use assetbased determinations to decide eligibility. Despite the rich literature and targeting of social programs for those with low incomes (“in poverty”), social class and income are often not factors other than in the contexts of income (to attract higher income residents to housing), assets for defining eligibility for social and health care programs, income scales for payments for services, maximizing funds from community and fund-raising events to compensate for inadequate funding for agencies, wage and salary discrepancies, and budget limitations of those on fixed incomes.

The original services included attendant referral (now user-directed personal assistance), benefits counseling, independent living skills * Ed Roberts (known as the “father of independent living”) told me he decided not to pursue Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (RRTC) money on the first round before his group moved offices to Oakland before the International PAS Symposium in California in 1991. In addition, the late Wolf Wolfensberger often decried federal funds related to the issues facing the lives of people with disabilities.

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