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By Thomas Foken

This e-book makes a speciality of atmospheric approaches which at once impact human environments in the lowest 100-1000 meters of the ambience over areas of just a couple of kilometers in quantity. The publication is the English translation of the second one variation of the German booklet ''Applied Meteorology – Micrometeorological Methods''. It offers, with chosen examples, the fundamentals of micrometeorology utilized to disciplines resembling biometeorology, agrometeorology, hydrometeorology, technical meteorology, environmental meteorology, and biogeoscience. the real matters mentioned during this publication are the shipping procedures and fluxes among the ambience and the underlying floor. Vegetated and heterogeneous surfaces are detailed topics. the writer covers the components of thought, measuring strategies, experimental tools and modeling in the entire ways in which can be utilized independently in instructing, study or functional applications.

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5. Determination of the friction velocity from the wind profile with a semi-log plot Fig. 6. 2. 622 e p The integration of the profile equation for the momentum flux Eq. 61) where z0 is the height of the extrapolated logarithmic wind profile where u(z0) = 0 as illustrated in Fig. 6. Thus, z0 is only an integration constant. Because this parameter is dependant on the state of the surface it is called roughness parameter or roughness length. 2 m for small trees. 1. The integration of the equations for the sensible and the latent heat flux is formally identical to those of the momentum flux.

The application of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory on the profile equations Eqs. 48) is done using the so-called universal functions φm(ς), φH(ς) and φE(ς) for the momentum, sensible and latent heat exchange respectively. Therefore, a new functional dependence on the dimensionless parameter ζ, is given along with Eqs. 73) The universal functions can be approximated by a Taylor series (Monin and Obukhov 1954) with the argument ς: ϕ (ς ) = 1 + β1 ς + β 2 ς 2 + ... 76) with the coefficient γ determined experimentally.

Data show that the precipitation-evaporation cycle over the land is not as strongly coupled as they are over the ocean. The water balance equation is widely used in hydrological investigations. There, the evaporation connects meteorology with hydrology. This field of investigations is often called hydrometeorology. 2 Basic Equations of Atmospheric Turbulence Before starting the derivation of the equations for the turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and trace gases (Chap. 3), we present a short introduction into the basic equation.

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