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By Laganà, Pasqualina

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Extra resources for Microbial toxins and related contamination in the food industry

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Anatoxin-a (Fig. 3 mg/kg (Metting and Pyne 1986; Mitrovic et al. 2004). Other important neurotoxins are anatoxin-c and Homoanatoxin-a (Skulberg 1999). Fig. 4 Chemical structure of a neurotoxic alkaloid: anatoxin-a. html) has been used for drawing this structure 34 2 Biological Toxins from Marine and Freshwater Microalgae Prymnesin is an icthyotoxin produced by Prymnesium parvum, a brackish-water golden-brown phytoflagellate (Metting and Pyne 1986). The presence and correlated health risks of the neurotoxic compound, BMAA, has been recently described (Cox et al.

The reduction of nutrient inputs is the most obvious target expected to play a key role in any cyanobacterial HAB mitigation strategies in both freshwater and marine environments. The reduction of phosphorus is an effective means of reducing cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic, and especially freshwater, ecosystems. However, nitrogen reductions are also needed, especially in eutrophic lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal waters. A management priority is to establish N and P input thresholds, below which cyanobacterial HAB can be controlled in terms of magnitude, temporal and spatial coverage.

The toxin can accumulate in Tindinnids, crustaceans like Tigriopus californicus and Cancer anthonyi larvae (Bruno 2000). Subsequently, the accumulated toxin is metabolised and the shellfish are decontaminated, but the metabolites retain their toxic properties. The mantle or the kidney remain toxic for up to six months after intoxication while the hepatopancreas detoxifies itself much earlier. Toxins cause a species-specific toxic effect in the same shellfish: it is manifested by altered shell activity, decreased or increased oxygen consumption, altered heart rate, reduced production of fine linen, altered filtration and nutrition rates.

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