By Peter Gibbon, Evelyne Lazaro, Stefano Ponte
This assortment specializes in new generations of overseas criteria and laws within the agro-food quarter and on concerns when it comes to conformity to them in low-income nations. Its analyses draw of political economic climate, economics, financial geography and monetary sociology.
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Additional info for Global Agro-Food Trade and Standards: Challenges for Africa (International Political Economy)
2007) provide an example of a processed vegetable chain in Madagascar where no rationalization has occurred. The scheme described, which incorporates 9000 smallholder green bean farmers exporting to the mainland Europe market, was not GlobalGAP certified. Interestingly, Mwangi (2008) states that in 2006, while there were only 2210 smallholders certified to GlobalGAP for fresh vegetable production, there were 6000 certified to the same standard’s processed vegetable rules. 10. In order to make comparisons easier, all income results have been converted to US$ from the currencies they are reported in the original studies, using average conversion rates for the year in which the survey is reported to have occurred.
Chapter 6) provide a mainly qualitative analysis of welfare outcomes of participation in certain standards-heavy chains, Gibbon et al. (Chapter 4) and Kadigi et al. (Chapter 8) provide detailed quantitative analyses, in both cases comparing outcomes for chain participants with those of non-participants. Gibbon et al. (Chapter 4) present a mainly econometric analysis of effects of participation effects in six different organic contract farming schemes in East Africa, while Kadigi et al. consider effects for several different categories of participants in export and non-export fishery chains emanating from Lake Victoria.
In this context, these standards aim at facilitating a harmonized system for organizationand project-level carbon accounting. Although a Working Group that contained experts from 45 countries drew up ISO 14064 over a 4-year period, most of its elements appear to be derived from a single source, the GHG-P, launched in 1997 by WRI and WBCSD and revised in 2000 to include a corporate accounting and reporting protocol. Comparisons of the two standards (McGray, 2003; Simon Bolwig and Peter Gibbon 27 Spannangle, 2003) agree that their main differences are that (i) GHG-P, unlike ISO 14064, provides detailed guidance notes and calculation tools, while (ii) ISO 14064, unlike GHG-P, covers verification.