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By Ian Miles

​Decision-makers in any respect degrees are being faced with novel complexities and uncertainties and face long term demanding situations which require foresight approximately long term destiny clients, assumptions, and techniques. This booklet explores how foresight experiences will be systematically undertaken and utilized in this context. It explicates why and the way equipment like horizon scanning, state of affairs making plans, and roadmapping might be utilized whilst facing excessive degrees of uncertainty. The scope of the publication strikes past “narrow” know-how foresight, in the direction of addressing systemic interrelations among social, technological, fiscal, environmental, and political platforms. purposes of foresight instruments to such fields as strength, towns, overall healthiness, transportation, schooling, and sustainability are regarded as good as permitting applied sciences together with nano-, bio-, and knowledge applied sciences and cognitive sciences. The techniques could be illustrated with particular real cases.

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Extra resources for Foresight for Science, Technology and Innovation

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The extent to which new ForSTI practitioners are required also varies according to the type of project. For example, if a major new TFP is to be launched, there will be decisions to make about whether this is to be extremely wide-ranging or focused on one or more specific topics. If we have already accomplished one such Programme, then the issue may be whether to replicate it or extend it, or to take a new tack altogether. If we have an ongoing Programme, then we may be deciding what new topics to address with a stream of projects.

Interpretation: Strategy and prioritisation phase, in which the implications of the preceding steps are examined, especially in terms of what these mean for achieving the major objectives of the sponsor and other stakeholders. Intervention: Action phase, where proposed strategies, priorities, and next steps are outlined and communicated to—or deliberated with—key actors. Impact: Evaluation and embedding phase, where the extent to which the ForSTI activity has been useful, and achieved its objectives, is assessed and specification for follow-up or extended activity is laid out.

Whatever the case, there is typically one body responsible to commissioning the ForSTI activity and ensuring that relevant resources are sufficient—we refer to this as the sponsor for convenience. Sometimes an exercise may be simply a matter of “me too” on the part of the sponsor—a government agency, for example, sees that its counterpart in another country has undertaken ForSTI and seeks to emulate this. This may involve trying to transplant the other party’s exercise to the local context—bringing in the same consultants, for instance, and asking them to provide precisely the same set of # Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 I.

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