By R. Thomas Long Jr., Jason A. Sutula, Michael J. Kahn
This SpringerBrief summarizes a full-scale, lowered commodity fireplace checking out comparability of cartoned Lithium ion batteries and FM international commonplace commodities in a rack garage configuration, as mentioned via FM worldwide. exams overview the flammability features of the fabrics and the effectiveness of ceiling point simply sprinkler safety. The trying out equipment, mentioned intensive, are scaled down from ordinary commodity type checking out as a result inordinate expenditures of Li-ion batteries. Small layout Li-ion battery commodities signify either commercially to be had battery codecs and Li-ion battery containing units. the chosen Li-ion battery varieties are person 18650 layout cylindrical cells, strength device packs produced from 18650 structure cells and polymer cells. the chosen comparability commodities are the FM worldwide commonplace type 2 and Cartoned Unexpanded Plastic (CUP). the consequences supply perception into the mixed results of alternative garage heights, ceiling peak, safety approach layout, battery density, kingdom of cost and battery kind. Flammability of Cartoned Lithium Ion Batteries is meant for practitioners as a device for reading commodity checking out equipment and delivering information approximately power risks. Researchers operating in a similar box also will locate the booklet valuable.
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The overall test configuration is shown in Fig. 1. A single-row target array contained two pallet loads of the Class 2 commodity across a 4-foot aisle to the west of the main array to improve viewing angles of the ignition area. Documentation for each test included video, IR and still photography, temperature measurements, flow and pressure measurements for the sprinkler system, and exhaust gas measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and the depletion of oxygen. Supplementary instrumentation was added R.
8, Recommendations, of the FM Global report . Reference 1. B. , Flammability characterization of lithium-ion batteries in bulk storage. FM Global, March 2013 Chapter 6 Possible Future Work The following possible future work is suggested (Phase IIC) to further understand protection requirements for bulk packaged small format Li-ion batteries in rack storage configurations: • Determine the overall effectiveness of reduced-scale testing through additional reduced commodity tests utilizing power tool packs and/or possibly including additional small format Li-ion batteries with appreciable amounts of plastics, such as portable computer batteries; • Determine the effectiveness of reduced-scale testing through additional reduced commodity tests using hard case bulk packaged prismatic format cells; • Determine the effectiveness of reduced-scale testing through additional reduced commodity tests using an internal cell fault scenario; • Develop, as possible, both reduced-scale and full-scale testing protocols based on the results of additional reduced commodity tests; • Re-evaluate single credible worst-case commodity for testing based on any additional reduced-scale testing conducted; • Develop and execute a full-scale testing protocol utilizing water as the extinguishing agent for full-scale testing of the chosen single credible worst case Liion battery commodity.
2 gpm/psi and were installed 18 inches below the ceiling. A nominal operating pressure of 25 psig provided a discharge of 125 gpm per sprinkler. 25 gpm/ft2. For Test 15, the sprinklers had a k-factor of 14 gpm/psi and were installed 14 inches below the ceiling. A nominal operating pressure of 75 psig provided a discharge of 120 gpm per sprinkler. 2 gpm/ft2. Ignition was achieved with two FM Global standard half igniters. The overall test configuration is shown in Fig. 1. A single-row target array contained two pallet loads of the Class 2 commodity across a 4-foot aisle to the west of the main array to improve viewing angles of the ignition area.