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During the warming-part of the cycle, the rigidity of the concrete is not well developed, so it typically has a high capacity for creep, and adhesive and/or frictional interaction with the rigid substrate is minor. During this expansion, the concrete is in compression. When the concrete is in its cooling phase, these surface forces are better developed, creep capacity is reduced, and the negative volume change against this restraint result in tensile strain in the structure. If these exceed the tensile strain capacity, then the concrete cracks, being initiated at the restrained surface and propagating into the structure.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002. ASTM C 78-02. Standard Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam With Third Point Loading). American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002. ASTM C 150. Standard Specification for Portland Cement. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002. ASTM C 157. Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002 ASTM C 341. Standard Test Method for Length Change of Drilled or Sawed Specimens of Hydraulic Cement Mortar and Concrete.

Tension is applied along the rod with turnbuckles or by tightening the anchoring nuts at the end of the rod. (Crumpton and Stratton, 1983) Practices for the Prevention of Cracks BRIDGES Cracking in bridge decks is a significant issue in the highway construction industry, particularly with the increased use of high performance concrete. A great deal of research has been done to identify causes and prevention measures in an effort to extend the service life of bridge decks. , 1999). 40) provides best results.

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