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By Jill St. Germain

Damaged Treaties is a comparative evaluation of Indian treaty negotiation and implementation targeting the 1st decade following the United States–Lakota Treaty of 1868 and Treaty Six among Canada and the Plains Cree (1876). Jill St. Germain argues that the “broken treaties” label imposed via nineteenth-century observers and perpetuated within the ancient literature has obscured the implementation adventure of either local and non-Native contributors and distorted our knowing of the relationships among them. for this reason, historians have missed the position of the Treaty of 1868 because the software during which the USA and the Lakotas mediated the cultural divide isolating them within the interval among 1868 and 1875. In discounting the treaty historians have additionally didn't delight in the wider context of U.S. politics, which undermined a treaty method to the Black Hills problem in 1876. In Canada, nevertheless, the “broken treaties” culture has obscured the enormously varied figuring out of Treaty Six held by way of Canada and the Plains Cree. the shortcoming of both occasion to understand the other’s place fostered the harmful false impression that culminated within the Northwest uprising of 1885. within the first severe evaluate of the implementation of those treaties, damaged Treaties restores Indian treaties to a important place within the research of Native–non-Native kin within the usa and Canada. (20100601)

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Extra resources for Broken treaties: United States and Canadian relations with the Lakotas and the Plains Cree, 1868-1885

Example text

All these Indians sitting around here are Chiefs of the Country,” he said, “and of the timber, hay, wood and water. 6 Senator and peace commissioner John B. Henderson dealt more closely with matters pertaining to the Peace Commission’s mandate. He encouraged the Lakotas to take up farming so as to live and eat as the white man did. ” With this brief assurance as to the sanctity of Lakota lands, he expanded on the agricultural aid the United States was prepared to offer, which included a promise to make good on crops lost due Expectations and Promises 29 to grasshopper infestation and a commitment to provide farmers and teachers.

The new republic, oflcially established by the Treaty of Paris of 1783, rejected overall British policy but eventually adopted several of its elements. 2 The United States also continued to employ treaties as an appropriate tool in interactions often punctuated with conmict, thus ever in need of arrangements for peace. Treaties used in this fashion accorded with their function in other international relationships. ” This distinct position obliged the United States to develop means to accommodate Indians as an aspect of internal affairs, something pursued through policy initiatives.

S. government held responsibility for Indian affairs, but until the 1870s it chose to deal with each tribe individually, and as a result, no national legislation beyond the acts of trade existed to govern relations. This dearth of legislative action magniled the role of treaties, which increasingly incorporated terms concerning Indian policy as well as Indian relations. Western expansion in the nineteenth century was not the prerogative of the United States alone. The Lakotas, originally a woodlands people from Wisconsin and Minnesota, had begun to move westward in the eighteenth century and were permanently located west of the Missouri River by 1833.

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