By Ulrike Bross
Sustained monetary progress in important and japanese eu nations relies between others on a thorough technological restructuring. The software of expertise audit helps coverage makers in designing acceptable recommendations for shaping technological know-how and expertise guidelines during this technique. The publication develops in its conceptual half a technique for the research of strengths and weaknesses of R&D platforms and destiny parts of competitiveness which might be transferred additionally to different nations during periods of severe technological improvement. those directions are according to overseas most sensible perform of review study and useful reviews within the transition context. The empirical a part of the booklet offers the findings of a know-how audit within the box of biotechnology in Hungary. in keeping with a global comparability of luck elements in biotechnology, promising parts for Hunagrian technology and are pointed out. The booklet offers instructions for researchers and coverage makers and gives an in depth survey of the present kingdom of biotechnology in Hungary.
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Additional resources for Bio-Technology Audit in Hungary: Guidelines, Implementation, Results
The analysis of the technological profile was performed on the industry level but also at cluster and firm level and employed indicators such as R&D budget, R&D personnel, patents and foreign trade patterns. World market shares were compared with patents on the most important world markets, furthermore the structure of patent holders were analysed. 3 In this context see also Grupp (1993) and Faust eta!. (1995). 30 Criteria for the evaluation of the future competitiveness of the Swiss industry were the level of innovativeness and the technological direction.
3 Aggregate Analysis The aim of many aggregate analyses is to give an overview of the economic and political development in CEECs in order to better understand and appreciate the starting point and achieved stage in the transformation process. Recently, information on the political and economic development and on the issues relevant for R&D has significantly improved in almost all CEECs, thanks to the international action of the OECD, the World Bank, the EU and national reporting activities (World Bank 1996, OECD 1993a, BMWi 1996, EU 1996, Weidenfeld 1995).
Evaluation research is most commonly conducted on specific government programmes, to assess the needs of the target groups of government programmes and the future potential of new technologies, but is also applied to the knowledge infrastructure. Especially the latter form of evaluation providing a basis for institutional reforms and the restructuring of organisational missions and making scientific and technological institutions more responsive to their clients represents a new kind of evaluation (Kuhlmann 1995).