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By David G. Andrews

A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This variation has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now features a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the scholar a wide knowing of a few of the actual techniques underlying this most vital and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are built regularly within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The ebook is an important source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technological know-how, or utilized arithmetic direction.

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Z0 4 Note that, for a compressible atmosphere, the static stability depends on the vertical increase of the potential temperature, not on the vertical decrease of the density, as might have been expected intuitively. The latter is applicable only to an incompressible fluid. 8. 12), so we can write ∞ EP = − p=p0 dp dz = dz z z0 z dp, p=0 where the integration variable has been changed from z to p and the upper and lower limits of integration have been reversed, with a corresponding change of sign.

8 K km−1 . 12). For adiabatic motion of the parcel δQ = 0 and so, letting δz → 0, − dT g = = dz cp a, as before. The actual lapse rate −dT/dz in the atmosphere will generally differ from the DALR. To investigate the implications of this, consider a parcel that is originally at equilibrium at height z, with temperature T, pressure p and density ρ, all equal to the values for the surroundings. 3. 7. 28 Fig. 3 Atmospheric thermodynamics A parcel (shown shaded) displaced a height δz from its equilibrium position at height z (shown dashed).

5, considering a saturated parcel (which is taken for convenience to be of unit mass) that rises a distance δz. At saturation, the mixing ratio μ equals the saturation mixing ratio μs (T, p). 44) 9 Note that δμ , as is usual for a small change, is defined as an increase in μ ; therefore −δμ is a decrease s s s of μs . 38 Atmospheric thermodynamics is given to the parcel. The liquid water is assumed to fall out of the parcel and take no further part in its heat balance: this is an irreversible process and it also implies a loss of heat from the parcel.

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