By Alexander Kokhanovsky(eds.)
Chapter 1 creation to Airborne Measurements of the Earth surroundings and floor (pages 1–5): Ulrich Schumann, David W. Fahey, Dr. Manfred Wendisch and Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier
Chapter 2 dimension of airplane nation and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables (pages 7–75): Jens Bange, Marco Esposito, Donald H. Lenschow, Philip R. A. Brown, Volker Dreiling, Andreas Giez, Larry Mahrt, Szymon P. Malinowski, Alfred R. Rodi, Raymond A. Shaw, Holger Siebert, Herman Smit and Martin Zoger
Chapter three In Situ hint gasoline Measurements (pages 77–155): Jim McQuaid, Hans Schlager, Maria Dolores Andres?Hernandez, Stephen Ball, Agnes Borbon, Steve S. Brown, Valery Catoire, Piero Di Carlo, Thomas G. Custer, Marc von Hobe, James Hopkins, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Thomas Rockmann, Anke Roiger, Fred Stroh, Jonathan Williams and Helmut Ziereis
Chapter four In Situ Measurements of Aerosol debris (pages 157–223): Andreas Petzold, Paola Formenti, Darrel Baumgardner, Ulrich Bundke, Hugh Coe, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Richard C. Flagan, Markus Fiebig, James G. Hudson, Jim McQuaid, Andreas Minikin, Gregory C. Roberts and Jian Wang
Chapter five In Situ Measurements of Cloud and Precipitation debris (pages 225–301): Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier, William D. Bachalo, Patrick Y. Chuang, Biagio M. Esposito, Jacob Fugal, Timothy Garrett, Jean?Francois Gayet, Hermann Gerber, Andy Heymsfield, Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky, Alexei Korolev, R. Paul Lawson, David C. Rogers, Raymond A. Shaw, Walter Strapp and Manfred Wendisch
Chapter 6 Aerosol and Cloud Particle Sampling (pages 303–341): Martina Kramer, Cynthia Twohy, Markus Hermann, Armin Afchine, Suresh Dhaniyala and Alexei Korolev
Chapter 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (pages 343–411): Dr. Manfred Wendisch, Peter Pilewskie, Birger Bohn, Anthony Bucholtz, Susanne Crewell, Chawn Harlow, Evelyn Jakel, okay. Sebastian Schmidt, Rick Shetter, Jonathan Taylor, David D. Turner and Martin Zoger
Chapter eight Hyperspectral distant Sensing (pages 413–456): Eyal Ben?Dor, Daniel Schlapfer, Antonio J. Plaza and Tim Malthus
Chapter nine LIDAR and RADAR Observations (pages 457–526): Jacques Pelon, Gabor Vali, Gerard Ancellet, Gerhard Ehret, Pierre H. Flamant, Samuel Haimov, Gerald Heymsfield, David Leon, James B. Mead, Andrew L. Pazmany, Alain Protat, Zhien Wang and Mengistu Wolde
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A. Brown, Volker Dreiling, Andreas Giez, Larry Mahrt, Szymon P. Malinowski, Alfred R. Rodi, Raymond A. 1 Introduction Insofar as the atmosphere is part of a giant heat engine, the most fundamental variables that must be quantiﬁed are those describing its thermodynamic state and the air motions (wind). Therefore, this chapter focuses on describing methods for measuring basic thermodynamic and dynamic variables of the atmosphere, including aspects and calibration strategies that are unique to performing such measurements from airborne platforms.
KGaA. 2 1 Introduction to Airborne Measurements of the Earth Atmosphere and Surface of seconds to many hours or even days. , turbulence, nanometer-sized particles, and gases without or with only low radiation absorption efﬁciencies, such as nitrogen monoxide). Aircraft can reach remote locations and can carry in situ as well as active and passive remote sensing instruments. Observations may be performed along streamlines or in a fully Lagrangian manner with repeated sampling of the same air mass over extended periods.
1 Sketch of gimbal system. (Source: Redrawn from Axford (1968). Copyright 1968 American Meteorological Society. ) rotations that are prescribed by the order of the gimbals (roll innermost). For strapdown systems, the equations are written to emulate this gimbal order that deﬁnes the attitude angles using the Tait-Bryan sequence of rotations: (i) rotate to wings horizontal around body X (forward)-axis by roll angle (φ, right wing down positive); (ii) rotate to X-axis horizontal about body Y (right)-axis by pitch angle (θ , nose up positive); and (iii) rotate about Z (down)-axis to north by heading (ψ, true heading, positive from north toward east).