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By Richard J. Reid

Up to date and revised to emphasize long term views on present matters dealing with the continent, the hot 2<sup>nd</sup> variation of A heritage of recent Africa recounts the total breadth of Africa's political, financial, and social background over the last centuries.
* Adopts a long term method of present matters, stressing the significance of nineteenth-century and deeper indigenous dynamics in explaining Africa's later twentieth-century challenges
* areas a better specialize in African organisation, specifically in the course of the colonial encounter
* comprises extra in-depth insurance of non-Anglophone Africa
* bargains increased insurance of the post-colonial period to take account of contemporary advancements, together with the clash in Darfur and the political unrest of 2011 in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya

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Additional resources for A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)

Sample text

Bunyoro was weakened by internal political turmoil in this period, and steadily lost territory in the course of the eighteenth century; it would, however, experience a period of resurgence from the 1860s and 1870s onward. Further south, in the extremely fertile and well-watered hills north of Lake Tanganyika, lay the kingdoms of Rwanda and Burundi, also highly militarized, although Rwanda was the more successful, expanding aggressively in the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Of course, different political systems existed side by side: to the east of the centralized militarism of Buganda lay a loose confederacy of small principalities, the Soga; and likewise, to the north of Buganda and Bunyoro lay smaller, often “stateless”, societies, peoples who lived along, and indeed in some ways represented, the fluid frontiers between expanding, hegemonic polities.

Immigrant pastoralists developed such systems in Rwanda and Burundi, where they became known as Tutsi, and in Ankole, where they were Hima; in these societies they were patrons to agriculturalist clients, the Bantu-speaking farmers known as Hutu in Rwanda and Burundi, and Iru in Ankole. In reality, there was a great deal of both cultural and economic interaction between these groups; but in many ways cattle-keeping came to be regarded as something of an elite activity, associated with elevated status, and pastoralists as a superior caste.

Such violence was exacerbated by the introduction of firearms, commonly traded by coastal merchants for slaves, although we need to be cautious about generalization; guns were often used as much for psychological effect as for the infliction of physical damage in the heat of battle. Yet more broadly the availability of guns influenced the breakdown of “traditional” authority and the growth of new forms of military leadership and political domination. Moreover, as in the Atlantic zone, the export of what was a potential labor force was profoundly damaging in societal and economic terms.

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