Download Thoughtful machine learning : a test-driven approach by Kirk, Matthew; Loukides, Michael Kosta; Monaghan, Rachel; PDF

By Kirk, Matthew; Loukides, Michael Kosta; Monaghan, Rachel; Spencer, Ann; Volkhausen, Ellie; Yarbrough, Melanie

Learn find out how to observe test-driven improvement (TDD) to machine-learning algorithms—and seize error which may sink your research. during this functional consultant, writer Matthew Kirk takes you thru the rules of TDD and computer studying, and indicates you ways to use TDD to a number of machine-learning algorithms, together with Naive Bayesian classifiers and Neural Networks.

Machine-learning algorithms usually have checks baked in, yet they can’t account for human mistakes in coding. instead of blindly depend upon machine-learning effects as many researchers have, you could mitigate the danger of blunders with TDD and write fresh, solid machine-learning code. If you’re acquainted with Ruby 2.1, you’re able to start.

  • Apply TDD to write down and run checks prior to you begin coding
  • Learn the simplest makes use of and tradeoffs of 8 laptop studying algorithms
  • Use real-world examples to check every one set of rules via enticing, hands-on exercises
  • Understand the similarities among TDD and the clinical procedure for validating solutions
  • Be conscious of the hazards of desktop studying, comparable to underfitting and overfitting data
  • Explore ideas for bettering your machine-learning types or information extraction

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For the most part, Euclidean distances are commonly used and represent the shortest path between two points. Minkowski Distance A generalization of Euclidean and Taxicab distances is called the Minkowski distance. To understand the Minkowski distance, let’s first look at what the Taxicab distance function looks like: 30 | Chapter 3: K-Nearest Neighbors Classification dtaxicab x, y = ∑ni = 1 xi − yi This function takes the absolute differences between all dimensions of the points x and y. Now let’s look at the Euclidean distance function: deuclid x, y = ∑ni = 1 xi − yi 2 1 2 Note that squaring something will always yield a positive number and that x = x .

Clustering is a common example of unsupervised learning Reinforcement Learning Reinforcement learning involves figuring out how to play a multistage game with rewards and payoffs. Think of it as the algorithms that optimize the life of something. A common example of a reinforcement learning algorithm is a mouse trying to find cheese in a maze. For the most part, the mouse gets zero reward until it finally finds the cheese. We will discuss supervised and unsupervised learning in this book but skip reinforce‐ ment learning.

Mahalanobis Distance One problem with the Minkowski type distance functions is that they assume that data should be symmetric in nature—that is, that distance is the same on all sides. A lot of times, data is not spherical in nature or well suited for symmetric distances like the Minkowski distances. For example, in the case of Figure 3-8, we should take into consideration the ellipsoidal nature of the data. Instead of drawing a perfect cir‐ cle around the data like the one shown, we need to figure something out that is better suited for the data’s variability.

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