By Teuvo Kohonen

Whereas the current version is bibliographically the 3rd one in every of Vol. eight of the Springer sequence in info Sciences (IS 8), the publication truly stems from Vol. 17 of the sequence conversation and Cybernetics (CC 17), entitled Associative reminiscence - A System-Theoretical method, which seemed in 1977. That ebook was once the 1st monograph on disbursed associative stories, or "content-addressable thoughts" as they're usually known as, particularly in neural-networks examine. This writer, notwithstanding, wish to reserve the time period "content-addressable reminiscence" for convinced extra conventional constructs, the reminiscence destinations of that are chosen via parallel seek. Such units are mentioned in Vol. 1 of the Springer sequence in info Sciences, Content-Addressable thoughts. This 3rd version of IS eight is quite just like the second. new discussions were further: one to the top of Chap. five, and the opposite (the L VQ 2 set of rules) to the tip of Chap. 7. furthermore, the convergence facts in Sect. 5.7.2 has been revised.

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**Example text**

In linguistics, context is often defined by the whole subject area under discussion; on the other hand, in cognitive processes, those pieces of information contributing to the context may come from different levels of abstraction of the observation. 4 More Abstract Aspects of Memory 21 stance, a subject in the traffic may receive context information from the road signs, other vehicles, time of the day, "internal model" of the roads existing in the driver's memory, etc. The factors defining such a "context" are then temporarily stored in memory; the background is determined internally.

32) where A is a square matrix of dimensionality n x n; any solutions for x are called the eigenvectors of A. Notice that the "direction" of an eigenvector corre- 46 2. Pattern Mathematics sponding to the relative magnitudes of its elements is not changed in the multiplication by A. 32) is solved in the following way. Let the determinant formed of the elements of a square matrix M be denoted 1M I. If (A - AI)x = 0 must have solutions other than the trival one x = 0, the familiar condition known from systems of linear equations is that lA-AIl = O.

9. The effective output signals are obtained by another combinational circuit. Time delays usually exist in the internal signal paths or in the feedback; it is the amount of feedback delay which sets the time scale in the dynamic (sequential) process. One should realize that the internal state of the system is a static variable, and a dynamic (sequential) operation is implemented by the effect of delayed feedback. 0, 02 Combl~1oMI circuit Fig. 9. 3 Elementary Operations Implemented by Associative Memory 17 Sequences are also implementable by autoassociative memories defined above.