Download Poland (Nations in Transition) by Steven Otfinoski PDF

By Steven Otfinoski

Examines the heritage, politics, and tradition of Poland, with an emphasis on its transition from a communist to a loose kingdom.

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When 55 shipyard workers died in the “bread riots” of December 1970, Wa l⁄esa’s life was changed. He became a leading labor organizer, working to negotiate with the government for better working conditions and pay for the shipyard workers. In 1976 he was fired over a protest and spent years drifting from job to job trying to make a living for his family while continuing his work as a labor leader. In January 1979 Wa l⁄esa cofounded a free trade union on the Baltic coast and helped publish the first issue of a radical journal, The Worker of the Coast.

Tadeusz Andrzei Bonawentura Ko´sciuszko was born into an old but poor noble family and studied at the Royal Military School in Warsaw. His ambition was to be a soldier, and he went to France to study military engineering. When he returned to Poland in 1774, he worked as a tutor for the daughter of a Cossack leader. The romantic young man fell in love with his student and barely escaped her father’s wrath with his life. He fled to France and then America, a land in as much turmoil as Poland. The cause of American freedom from Britain moved Ko´sciuszko deeply, and he offered his services as a volunteer to the Philadelphia Congress.

The Polish government faced a serious dilemma. If it gave in any more to the unions, it could jeopardize the future of the state and provide a model for the peoples of other Eastern bloc countries to imitate. In October, Kania was replaced by the prime minister, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, a man the Soviets felt was moderate enough to deal effectively with Solidarity without giving away any more power. Martial Law In an unheard-of move, Wa⁄lesa, Jaruzelski, and Archbishop Glemp had a summit meeting to talk about how they might work together to bring Poland out of its crisis.

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