Download Norms and Gender Discrimination in the Arab World by Adel SZ Abadeer PDF

By Adel SZ Abadeer

Abadeer accommodates casual norms reminiscent of faith, mores, myths, taboos, codes-of-conduct, everyday legislation, and traditions, into the constitution of formal ideas (e.g., polity, judiciary, legislation, and the enforcement of law), which in flip effect the governance of the transactions.

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Extra resources for Norms and Gender Discrimination in the Arab World

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1 Subtle or weak messages are less likely to inf luence the image. However, repeated messages or those with strong authority can penetrate people’s resistance and alter their image. For example, religious people with strict observance to the precepts of their sacred books are likely to resist any doubt around the authority of such sacred norms and beliefs. They may either ignore the message or their resistance may take the form of emotive response such as anger and hostility (Boulding 1956). Therefore, “If the resistances are very strong, it may take very strong, or often repeated messages to penetrate them, the effect is realignment or reorganization of the whole knowledge structure” (Boulding 1956: 12).

Norms differs from rules in that rules are subsets of norms that have been formalized and are accompanied with punishments when broken (Ostrom 2012). According to Geoffrey 28 ● Norms and Gender Discrimination in the Arab World Marshall, rules may “‘penalize, prohibit, require, obligate, prescribe, inform, guide, empower, permit, license, enable, facilitate, entitle, command, define, designate, constitute, distribute, describe, exempt, and identify’ future courses of action” (Marshall 1983: 188 in Knight 1992: 67).

A woman’s identity, especially in collectivist societies, is socially constructed to suit the aspirations of the surrounding community. ’ Violating the prescriptions evokes anxiety and discomfort in oneself and in others. Gender identity, then, changes the ‘payoffs’ from different actions” (2000: 716–717). Identity also partially explains detrimental behaviors like FGM/C, certain forms of domestic violence, and “honor killing” (Akerlof and Kranton 2000). FGM/C is linked to feminine identity as it relates to beauty, cleanliness, and fidelity.

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