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By Paul Caruana Galizia

Using new information on actual wages, Caruana Galizia analyses the level to which areas round the Mediterranean have been a part of a similar labour marketplace through the 19th century.

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Extra info for Mediterranean Labor Markets in the First Age of Globalization: An Economic History of Real Wages and Market Integration

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Mortality of 8 percent. However, when the Irish famine struck, overall mortality rates spiked to 17 percent—higher even than pre-1790s slave ships. ”50 The cost of the transatlantic voyage varied greatly by port of embarkation and over time. Until the mid-nineteenth century, only German ships would furnish steerage passengers with the necessities of food, bedding, cooking facilities, and so on. 52 However, some 15 years later, this charge was slightly E X P L A I N I N G M E D I T E R R A N E A N E M I G R AT I O N 39 more than $24 (£5) from any of the main English ports.

This chapter offers an empirical explanation of the Mediterranean to New World migration experience (I analyze migration within the Mediterranean in chapter 5). 9 I start with a discussion of the emigrants’ general profiles. Next, I look at Mediterranean countries’ emigration rates and their explanations put forward in the literature. An empirical analysis of these emigration rates and explanations follows; in the penultimate section, I look into whether Mediterranean patterns of migration fit a general pattern of migration seen for most of northern Europe.

Fearful of dwindling cheap labor supplies, emigration countries were trying to stem outflows. 83 There were some exceptions. 86 As evidenced by the ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman empires, its initial success was based on the trade linking Europe to Asia and Africa. 87 26 MEDITERRANEAN LABOR MARKETS After Columbus and de Gama’s voyages, trade and colonization moved to the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The Mediterranean was bypassed. 90 Three catalysts changed the course of the Mediterranean’s nineteenth century.

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