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By Steven W. Purcell

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Extra resources for Managing Sea Cucumber Fisheries With an Ecosystem Approach (Fao Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper)

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Indicators describe in simple terms the state of fisheries resources and fishing activities and provide a measure of the extent to which the objectives are being achieved (FAO, 1999; King, 2007). Indicators should reflect parameters that can be measured or estimated with a good level of certainly from data that have, or could be, collected (FAO, 2003). Indicators should be chosen on the basis of a range of criteria, including cost, accuracy, practicality (FAO, 1999). 23 Managing sea cucumber fisheries with an ecosystem approach 24 Figure 12 Example of stock density indicator and reference points to measure the performance of a management strategy (adapted from FAO, 1999).

2008b). In some cases, the onus may be on the management authority to assess the effectiveness and optimisation of new gears. For example, to conduct experiments to find an optimal mesh size of trawls that minimises destruction to the benthos Managing sea cucumber fisheries with an ecosystem approach and bycatch while selecting animals that correspond to a minimum size limit. Gear development of this nature is usually costly. How to implement A survey of fishers should be conducted to know which gears are currently used.

Drags”, dredges (see Figures 7 and 19; Examples and lessons learned below) and trawls can damage seagrass beds and other benthic organisms like sponges and sea pens. The fishery might allow such gears, with a regulation on the equipment design that minimises damage to the sea bed or damage to the sea cucumbers being harvested. 67 m (Hamel and Mercier, 2008a). Limitations are sometimes placed on the use of SCUBA or hookah to minimise diving accidents in the fishery. This is mostly relevant for developing and low-income countries where diver training is less rigorous or difficult to obtain, and often lack the medical capability and facilities to deal with diver ailments such as the “bends”.

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