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By N. I. Tolstaya

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Additional info for Languages of Asia and Africa: The Panjabi Language

Example text

G. the boy who is reading .. h anda eating to weep ronda weeping to approach a unda approaching to descend l aehnda des cending Idiosyncratic forms of the imperfective parti ciple are found , ending in -na (m. ) , -ni ( f . ) in the singular and in -ne ( m. ) , and - nia ( f . ) i n the plura l . Chapte r 3 40 Some perfecti ve parti cip les are formed i rregularly . The mos t important are : kama j a�a marna kIta ( m . ) , kid ( f . )a As a rule , the perfective particip les of transitive verbs are Other participles have an active pas s i ve in meaning .

U�� i a ) s a'o ( s ao ) uh u��e ( f . g. g. i k bU9he ne amma nu puchia = s ome old man turned to mother w i th the ques tion The forms of the pas t perfec tive change only for gender and null'ber : S ingular P lural mae , tu , uh u��ia asi , tus i , uh u��e ( f . u�� i ) ( f . g. uh pa;hda hovega = h e mus t b e ( i s very probably ) reading This tense indicates an action whi ch is held to be very probable . The perfective form uses the perfective participle in this formation wi th the hypothetical tense of the auxiliary ; it expresses a n ac tion whose completion is held t o be , o r have been , ve ry probab le .

Engaged in looking at (present or pas t) perfective vekhia hoia seen kI ta hoia done The compound participle agrees w i th the word it de te rmines in gender and number . The absolute form of the participles , both simple and compound , may be used in an abso lute sense . participles take the ending � - = � -ia, mae munde hoi a s �ia . g. g . g. ph ae la�a to s traighten , let out ; = ,.... phae la-ke having let out , s traigh tened The conj ugated forms of the indica tive mood Simpl e forms The simple forms , made by adding the pers onal endings to the verbal base , include the impe rative mood , the s imple s ub j unc­ tive forms and the forms of the simple future which are deri ved from the latter .

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