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By William F. Royce (Auth.)

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The indirect methods work best in the open sea where the assumption of a steady state may be approxi- 54 2 THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT mately correct and where short period changes are less important. The direct methods work best in estuaries, lakes, and on continental shelves where tidal and other oscillatory currents preponderate. Measurement of deep currents and vertical currents is especially difficult and expensive. , an easterly current moves water toward the east. , an easterly wind blows from the east.

The actual flushing pattern can be determined for an estuary, and often effluents can be introduced where they will flow rapidly out to sea and not circulate in the estuary. Another aspect of the mixing is the horizontal and vertical incursion of the fresh- and saltwater layers.

42 2 THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT These benthic nutrients were at one time part of the biological cycles in the surface layers. There is a net downward flux of organic matter which decomposes as it sinks and the elements are returned to inorganic form at some depth in the lake or ocean. They are brought back into the biological cycle in the surface layer by physical processes such as upwelling, turbulence, and convection currents. The places where nutrients are brought up are enormously more productive than other parts of the ocean (Fig.

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