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By Guillaume Thomas Raynal

This Elibron Classics booklet is a facsimile reprint of a 1782 version by way of Jean-Leonard Pellet, Gen?ve.

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Read or Download Histoire philosophique et politique des etablissements et du commerce des Europeens dans les deux Indes: Tome 9 (French Edition) PDF

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Additional resources for Histoire philosophique et politique des etablissements et du commerce des Europeens dans les deux Indes: Tome 9 (French Edition)

Sample text

42 The idea has been utilised to account for the appearance, as well as the absence, of the idea of, and the institutions for Business and Politics 13 sustaining ‘democracy’ in different societies. Where the ‘civil society’ is strong, scholars generally believe, ‘democracy’ is likely to emerge. 43 Much of this literature deals with coastal China, especially Shanghai and its surrounding areas. Scholars generally agree that there was an expansion of the ‘public sphere’ in the late Qing period. 44 Local elites, filling the vacuum left by the withdrawal of the formal state apparatus, increased their control over such public activities as the management of education, welfare and taxes.

This Board was made up exclusively of expatriates in Hong Kong. Three years later in 1886, the first Chinese member was appointed to the Board. This appointee was Ho Kai (He Qi, 1859–1914), the brother-in-law of Wu Tingfang. Ho Kai would become an important figure in South China politics. Ho’s father was a Chinese preacher, affiliated with the London Missionary Society, who later built a small fortune from real estate (starting with his first purchase from the Missionary Society). Ho Kai was educated at the Government Central School in Hong Kong.

Immediately after the setting up of colonial rule in Hong Kong, the government declared that it intended to implement indirect rule through the ‘village elders’ in the new colony. 3 However, the actual involvement of village elders in politics was largely unsuccessful. 4 The British could identify very few ‘village elders’ in the colony. The reason was that the majority of the Chinese in Hong Kong were male immigrants with no village to which to attach themselves. J. Lethbridge finds that in 1844 there were only 315 families among the 13 000 Chinese in the colony.

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