Download Gibraltar, 1779-1783: The Great Siege by René Chartrand, Patrice Courcelle PDF

By René Chartrand, Patrice Courcelle

Книга Osprey crusade №172. Gibraltar 1779-83 Osprey crusade №172. Gibraltar 1779-83 Книги Исторические Автор: R.Chartrand Формат: pdf Издат.:Osprey Страниц: ninety eight Размер: forty two Mb ISBN: 084176 991 2 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Сериявоенных книгCampaign от Osprey.

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The Left promised reduction of taxes, broadening of the suffrage, a stronger stand against clerical influence, and a more active foreign policy. They delivered on all accounts, but not to the expected degree. The Left abolished the grist tax, but did not change the system’s reliance on indirect taxes. It extended the suffrage to only 7 percent of the population. It stepped up anticlerical activities, but respected the Law of Guarantees passed by the Right to protect the independence of the papacy.

Its new image consigned conservatives and democrats to the opposition and gave liberals authority and respectability. The liberals set out to unify Italy on their own terms. The other Italian states were discredited. The ruling dynasties of Tuscany and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies had shown that they could not survive without the external support of Austria and other conservative powers. The papacy was most affected, for Pius IX turned against the revolution and called on a coalition of Catholic powers headed by Austria and France to restore Rome to papal rule.

Caught between two fires, he pleased neither liberals nor conservatives. The revolutions of 1821 increased conservative fears of revolution, and the election of Pope Leo XII (1823–29) put an end to all efforts at compromise. From then on, papal policy was more conservative than Austrian policy and regarded all efforts at reform as dangerous concessions to the spirit of revolution. A figure similar to Consalvi guided government policy in the first five years of the Restoration in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

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