Download George Washington Grayson and the Creek Nation, 1843-1920 by Mary Jane Warde PDF

By Mary Jane Warde

A accomplice soldier, pioneer service provider, rancher, newspaper writer, and city builder, George Washington Grayson additionally served for 6 many years as a pace-setter of the Creek kingdom. His lifestyles paralleled the main tumultuous occasions in Creek Indian and Oklahoma heritage, from the aftermath of the path of Tears via international conflict I.As a diplomat representing the Creek humans, Grayson labored to form Indian coverage. As a cultural dealer, he defined its ramifications to his humans. A self-described revolutionary who encouraged English schooling, constitutional govt, and fiscal improvement, Grayson additionally was once an Indian nationalist who favored conventional values. whilst the Creeks confronted allotment and lack of sovereignty, Grayson sought how you can accommodate swap with out sacrificing Indian identity.Mary Jane Warde bases her portrait of Grayson on a wealth of basic and secondary assets, together with the broad writings of Grayson himself.

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Extra resources for George Washington Grayson and the Creek Nation, 1843-1920 (Civilization of the American Indian, 235)

Sample text

As a diplomat and member of the Creek National Government for nearly sixty years, he acted as a cultural broker, interpreting for the Creeks the language, policies, and demands of Anglo-Americans. Simultaneously, he reminded the federal government of its treaty obligations to the Creek Nation and presented the Creek perspective on federal Indian policies, legislation, and administration. Throughout the last half of the nineteenth century, Grayson urged the Creek people to adopt the educational, economic, religious, and political systems of the Anglo-American majority.

It was a position that Grayson occupied by choice long after other leaders of his generation stepped aside, leaving individual Creeks to fend for themselves. It was a post in which he often served as an intermediary and a rear guard, the latter a duty with which he was very familiar. " He earned his war name in his early manhood, while defending the Creek Nation during two years' hard campaigning with the Confederate Second Creek Mounted Volunteers. He valued being a tvsekiyv, "one who has received his war name," because it symbolized his lifelong ties and obligations to his Muskogee community.

Then, in 1824 the Creek National Council resisted all the blandishments of commissioners sent out from Washington to negotiate the sale of the Muskogee homeland in exchange for new lands in the proposed Indian Territory (reduced gradually to today's state of Oklahoma, excluding the Panhandle and old Greer County). 33 But some southeastern Indians, believing that resistance was futile, were more amenable to removal. Already a colony of Cherokees lived in western Arkansas, the Choctaws had capitulated to eventual removal, and other hard-pressed Indians were migrating westward.

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