Download Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking, 2nd by Margherita Pagani PDF

By Margherita Pagani

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking, 2nd Edition (2008)

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With this ever-increasing diffusion of computers in society, human–computer interaction (HCI) is becoming increasingly essential to our daily lives. HCI design was first dominated by direct manipulation and then delegation. The tacit assumption of both styles of interaction has been that the human will be explicit, unambiguous, and fully attentive while controlling the information and command flow. Boredom, preoccupation, and stress are unthinkable even though they are “very human” behaviors. This insensitivity of current HCI designs is fine for well-codified tasks.

Another type of hybrid-ARQ scheme uses a more sophisticated retransmission method. Instead of sending out an exact replica of the original packet, the base station sends some incremental redundancy bits provided for subsequent decoding. Such ARQ methods are also called Incremental Redundancy (IR) ARQ schemes. With such IR ARQ schemes, a packet containing transmission errors is not discarded, but is combined with the redundancy bits as they arrive in the follow-up retransmissions for error correction.

Therefore, if the transmitting power of one particular user is much higher than that of others, it will dominate the overall received power at the BS. This will result in high transmission error for the other users. In IS-95, the BS constantly measures the observed SIR level for all connected MSs, and piggyback a single-bit power command (increase or decrease transmission power by a fixed amount) every 5 ms. The power control mechanism in WCDMA uplink uses a close-loop feedback control. If the power level from one mobile is too high and generating unnecessary interference with the other mobiles in the network, or the power level is lower than the desired level, the base station will send a power control packet through the downlink to the specific mobile station to make necessary adjustment.

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