Download Death Stalks the Yakama: Epidemiological Transitions and by Clifford E. Trafzer PDF

By Clifford E. Trafzer

Clifford Trafzer's tense new paintings, Death Stalks the Yakama, examines lifestyles, loss of life, and the shockingly excessive mortality premiums that experience persevered one of the fourteen tribes and bands residing at the Yakama Reservation within the nation of Washington. The paintings features a beneficial dialogue of Indian ideals approximately spirits, conventional reasons of dying, mourning ceremonies, and memorials. extra major, even though, is Trafzer's examine into heretofore unused parturition and loss of life files from 1888-1964. In those records, he discovers severe facts to illustrate how and why many reservation humans died in "epidemics" of pneumonia, tuberculosis, and middle disease. 
     demise Stalks the Yakama, takes into consideration many variables, together with age, gender, indexed motives of demise, place of dwelling, and blood quantum. additionally, analyses of fetal and youngster mortality premiums in addition to crude loss of life charges bobbing up from tuberculosis, pneumonia, center affliction, injuries, and different motives are offered. Trafzer argues that local american citizens residing at the Yakama Reservation have been, actually, in jeopardy because of the "reservation method" itself. not just did this alien and synthetic tradition significantly adjust conventional methods of existence, yet sanitation equipment, housing, hospitals, public schooling, medication, and scientific group of workers affiliated with the reservation procedure all proved insufficient, and every in its personal method contributed considerably to excessive Yakama demise rates.

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Extra info for Death Stalks the Yakama: Epidemiological Transitions and Mortality on the Yakama Indian Reservation, 1888-1964

Sample text

Omran, "Epidemiologic Transition in the United States: The Health Factor in Population Change," Population Bulletin 32 {1977}: 1. 3. Ibid. 4. , 4. 5. , 9. 6. D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1985}. 7. : Government Printing Office, 1900}, 400. 1900 8. Thomas McKeown, "Food, Infection, and Population," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14 {1983}: 227. See also Thomas McKeown, The Modern Rise of Population (New York: Academic Press, 1976). 9. Ann G. Carmichael, "Infection, Hidden Hunger, and History," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14 {1983}: 249.

27 The censuses are voluminous, but they are not helpful in terms of deaths on the reservation. Some of the early censuses provide short notations if a person died, but they are not numerous and do not offer such variables as cause of death, place, age, or other sources of information. The best historical source on death are the Death Certificates, but a future analysis of the census data will offer a greater understanding of the Yakama population over time. Although limited use of the Yakama censuses is made for Death Stalks the Yakama, the Yakama censuses from 1890 to 1930 are currently being coded at ten-year intervals for two separate projects.

Nevertheless, Yakama life changed as a result of the reservation, particularly in terms of general health. This, of course, is a theory because little data exists regarding the general health of Yakama people prior to white contact and prior to the reservation system. However, this study will show that a large number of Yakama died during the reservation period of the twentieth century, especially infants and children under six years of age. In comparison to the population of Washington state, whites in the United States, and "non-whites" nationally, the Yakama experienced high crude death rates.

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