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By Richard Henry Pratt

Common Richard Henry Pratt, most sensible referred to as the founder and longtime superintendent of the influential Carlisle Indian college in Pennsylvania, profoundly formed Indian schooling and federal Indian coverage on the flip of the 20 th century. Pratt’s lengthy and energetic army occupation incorporated 8 years of provider as a military box officer at the western frontier. in the course of that point he participated in a few of the sign conflicts with Indians of the southern plains, together with the Washita crusade of 1868-1869 and the purple River battle of 1874-1875. He then served as jailor for lots of of the Indians who surrendered. His reports led him to devote himself to Indian schooling, and from 1879 to 1904, nonetheless on lively army responsibility, he directed the Carlisle college, believing that the single option to keep Indians from extinction used to be to take away Indian adolescence to nonreservation settings and there inculcate in them what he thought of civilized ways.Pratt’s memoirs, edited through Robert M. Utley and with a brand new foreword by means of David Wallace Adams, provide perception into and knowing of what at the moment are hugely debatable turn-of-the-century Indian schooling regulations.

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Extra info for Battlefield & Classroom: Four Decades With the American Indian, 1867-1904

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Yours, Dickory. 3. Lfe at Fort Arbuckle Whenever the scouts returned £rom their trips west to find where the camps of the roving Indians were, their ponies were loaded with fat venison and turkeys. At first, twenty-five cents was the price of a venison ham or a turkey without reference to the size, and one time I bought at that price a turkey which weighed twenty-four pounds. In recent years I have paid more than twice twenty-five cents per pound for a turkey. Mails for the post came in once a week and were brought on horseback from Fort Smith, Arkansas, by a contractor.

Matthew Arbuckle on the Neosho (or Grand) River, Fort Gibson was for two decades the most important post on the southwestern frontier. Its purpose was to protect the migrating "civilized tribes" of the East from the wild Plains tribes. After the Civil War, with the advance of the frontier, Fort Gibson lost its prewar importance but continued to serve as a quartermaster depot; supplies were shipped by river steamer from New Orleans for dispatch by wagon to forts farther west. I t was abandoned in 1889.

Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties ( 2 vols. Washington, 1904), 2,977-89. Chapter T w o We are having the most beautiful weather I ever knew at this time of the year. I am writing at five in the morning and en-deshabille, without a fire; we have had three or four good frosts but not a particle of snow this fall. A more suitable location for the reservation of the Indians it seems to me could not be found in the limits of our vast Union. Here the soil is fertile, farms are ready cleared yet adjacent to timber, stock lives the winter through without provision or labor on the part of the owner, and every disposition of climate and country seems calculated to favor their primitive mode of life and for gradually bringing them to civilization.

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