By Kathleen Kuiper
The geographically detailed American territories of California, the nice Basin, and the Southwest have lengthy sustained a number of indigenous peoples, together with the Miwok, Comanche, and Navajo, respectively. An exam of every of those tradition parts yields wealthy histories packed with steadfast traditions and non secular practices, subsistence styles dictated by way of geographic place, and social interactions inside and among tribes. This soaking up quantity surveys the background of many of the teams that shape those tradition components in addition to the non secular, cultural, and social practices that distinguish each one tribe.
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Extra resources for American Indians of California, The Great Basin and the Southwest (Native American Tribes)
ChuMash The language of the Chumash is a Hokan language. The people originally lived in what are now the California coastlands and adjacent inland areas from Malibu northward to Estero Bay, and on the three northern Channel Islands off Santa Barbara. The Chumash were among the first native Californians to be encountered by the Spanish-sponsored explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (1542–43). At the time of colonization, the Spanish referred to the major Chumash groups as the Obispeño, Purismeño, Ynezeño, Barbareño, and Ventureño (for the Franciscan missions San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, La Purísima Concepción, Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, and San Buenaventura, respectively), the inland Emigdiano and Cuyama, and the Isleño.
After entering the Franciscan Order in 1730 and being ordained in 1738, Serra taught philosophy at Lullian University, in Palma, on the Spanish island of Majorca. In 1750 he arrived in Mexico City for missionary work among the Indians, serving first in the Sierra Gorda missions from 1750 to 1758 and then in southcentral Mexico from 1758 to 1767. When Spain began its occupation of Alta California (present-day California), Serra joined the expedition’s commander, Gaspar de Portolá. On July 16, 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first within the present state of California.
28 7 California Peoples in Focus 7 These had territorial, political, and economic functions. Everyone belonged to religious societies, which had both ceremonial and political functions. Several family groupings had chiefs, and in most areas there was apparently a chief of chiefs. The Luiseño were mystics, and their conception of a great, all-powerful, avenging god was uncommon for aboriginal North America. In deference to this god, Chingichnish, they held a series of initiation ceremonies for boys, some of which involved a drug made from jimsonweed (Datura stramonium).