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By Alison R. Bernstein

The impression of global battle II on Indian affairs was once extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes lower than Eisenhower. targeting the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ international struggle II reviews in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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House members found a number of sections unacceptable. 13 They objected to separate Indian courts and self-governing communities that were empowered to make their own law and make contracts with the federal and state governments. The House Committee on Indian Affairs deleted the sections of the bill that provided for the consolidation of fractionalized allotted lands and for the return of these allotments back into the tribal estate. Collier believed that the loss of this provision was "a major disaster to the Indians, the Indian service and the program.

Recent Indian history has been written largely with an eye toward understanding the impact of the Collier administration, especially the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the centerpiece of Collier's legislative agenda. A great deal of scholarly attention has thus been paid to the first seven years of this longest-ever Indian administration. But the Collier years ended in 1945. And the Collier years were also the war years. Unfortunately, much of the recent historical literature on the Indian New Page 4 Deal has paid scant attention to the impact of the Second World War on Indian New Deal policies specifically and on Indian-white relations generally.

62 And yet, tragically, despite these gains made by the BIA and the federal agencies, it seemed as if the New Deal was merely running to keep up with the course of Indian affairs during the Depression. In the spring and summer of 1939 the most severe drought in fifty years gripped the Southwest. "63 Crop failure in some areas ran to 100 percent. Since they had not ratified the Indian Reorganization Act, the Navajo were ineligible for IRA loans, but they could receive other types of aid. In addition, they continued to resist government efforts at soil conservation and livestock reduction.

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