By ACI Committee 201
This consultant describes particular different types of concrete deterioration. each one bankruptcy encompasses a dialogue of the mechanisms concerned and the prompt standards for person elements of concrete, caliber issues for concrete combinations, building methods, and impacts of the publicity surroundings, that are all vital concerns to make sure concrete durability.
This consultant used to be constructed for traditional concrete yet is mostly acceptable to strong point concretes; notwithstanding, strong point concretes, comparable to roller-compacted or pervious concrete, can have distinctive durability-related concerns that deserve additional consciousness that aren't addressed herein. Readers may still seek advice different ACI files for extra unique details on specified concretes of curiosity.
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Extra resources for ACI 201.2R-08: Guide to Durable Concrete
These new sources of oil are more difficult to extract for various reasons. Reserves of oil under the ocean floor are being extracted at greater temperatures and higher pressures. In conjunction with higher temperatures and pressures, the sealing components used in oil extraction equipment are being exposed to higher pressures of carbon dioxide, and greater concentrations of methane, hydrogen sulfide, steam, ammonia and amine based corrosion inhibitors. These operating conditions are often labeled HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature) and encompass applications where thermal stability and explosive decompression are key considerations.
Due to the extensive nature of the test programme, only a selection of the tests undertaken are included in this paper. 1 MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURE The maximum continuous operating temperature for ‘Type II’ FKM elastomers is generally recognised as 204°C, with short-term excursions to as high as 250°C acceptable. Operating temperature capability is of course dependant upon the contact media and environment. As these are well documented, they will not be discussed further here. 2 LOW TEMPERATURE CAPABILITY This can be separated into two categories: 1.
He has been actively involved in the business of precision molded, high performance elastomer seals for over twenty years. Mr. Hertz has published and presented numerous papers on elastomers. Mr. Hertz is a graduate of the University of Colorado (Boulder, CO) where he studied Geology and Computer Science. He additionally earned a Master of Science degree from Stevens Institute of Technology (Hoboken, NJ) and a Juris Doctorate degree from Brooklyn Law School (Brooklyn, NY). ABSTRACT Steam injection for enhanced oil recovery is a mature technique that will likely increase to satisfy future demand for crude oil.