By David Rosner
This e-book examines the adjustments in medical institution care in big apple that happened round the flip of the 20 th century. It represents a primary departure from conventional scientific historical past, which has often emphasized 'progress' via technology and know-how. Professor Rosner identifies the commercial, political and demographic pressures that caused a reshaping of the future health care method, and analyses the dramatic reorganisation of hospitals that came about. He additionally discusses significant medical advances equivalent to the invention of anaesthetic homes of ether, nitrous oxide and chloroform, and the resultant elevate in surgical suggestions to scientific difficulties.
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Additional info for A Once Charitable Enterprise: Hospitals and Health Care in Brooklyn and New York 1885-1915 (Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Modern History)
Patients could not simply admit themselves to the hospital; they needed a sponsor, a prominent community member like a wealthy merchant or minister, who would write a letter to the lay trustee of the hospital attesting to their moral worthiness, and by implication to their stable lower-class position within the community. With the significant exceptions of accident cases, travelers, or visitors to the community who might bypass the scrutiny of the trustees by entering the hospital through the emergency room, the hospital carefully selected those to whom it would extend its charity services.
John S. Billings and the Census Office showed in a detailed, ward-by-ward survey that pneumonia, diphtheria, croup, scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, and malarial fever were major killers of people living in the industrial and port facilities along the water's edge. 62 Whereas the city as a whole had a death rate of just under 25 per 1,000 for the period 1884 to 1890, some wards in Greenpoint had death rates twice as high. A section of Ward 17 encompassing the northernmost portion of heavily industrialized Greenpoint had a death rate that exceeded 50 per 1,000.
Only eighteen horse-drawn ambulances serviced Brooklyn, and they were extremely haphazard and slow. 4^ Although the old hospitals and ambulance services were inadequate, new suburban neighborhoods had no hospitals at all to provide emergency care for those moving there and the working class who served them. Hospitals were generally located along the coast in older workingclass communities. An important study done in 1908 noted that "a line two miles long drawn in a circle . . reaches 15 out of the city's general hospitals .