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By William Edward Maxwell

Sir William Edward Maxwell (1846-1897) of the interior Temple, Barrister-at-Law; Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula, used to be the writer of A handbook of the Malay Language (1882).

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Res. x. xlv 18. The words in this column have been taken from the Malay and French Dictionary of the Abbé Favre. J. signifies Javanese, S. Sundanese, Bat. Battak, Mak. Makassar, Bu. Bugis, D. Dayak, Bis. Bisaya, Tag. Tagala, and Malg. Malagasi. 19. Favre derives abrak from the Arabic. 20. , and Tag. sila; S. silah, to invite; Bat. sila, a gift of welcome. 21. , and D. utara; Bat. otara; Bis. otala, east wind. 22. Crawfurd’s Malay Grammar, Dissertation clxxxiii. 23. J. mergu; J. sato; S. satoa; D.

Crawfurd, very likely correctly, derives this from the Portuguese baluârte, a bulwark. 32. Journ. Ind. , v. 572. 33. Crawfurd, Malay Grammar, Dissertation ccii. 34. These two words must have been originally used by Malays in the sense which they bear in Sanskrit. “Unto the shoes of my lord’s feet,” or “beneath the dust of your majesty’s feet,” are phrases in which paduka and duli would immediately precede the name or title of the person addressed. Being thus used always in connection with the titles of royal or distinguished persons, the two words have been taken for honorific titles, and are so used by Malays, unaware of the humble origin of what are to them high-sounding words.

II. SUBSTANTIVES. A difficulty which attends the classification of Malay words into various parts of speech, according to the system applied to European languages, consists in the number of words which, while yet unmodified by particles, are either verb or substantive, substantive or adjective, adjective or adverb, according to the context. Baniak, as an adverb, means much, as an adjective, many; jalan is either a road or to walk; panjang either long, tall, or length, height. The same thing 2 A Manual of the Malay Language occurs in English in a minor degree; but with us the difference between cold and a cold, or between to brush and a brush, is rendered distinct by the use of the article a and the particle to.

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