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By Gregory Gleason

Over a decade after nationwide independence, it's obvious that the contrasting improvement ideas followed via the 5 new governments of vital Asia have ended in considerably assorted results. This well-written and well timed e-book analyses how the improvement recommendations of those nations have affected their transition from communist governance.

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Extra info for Markets and Politics in Central Asia (Economies in Transition to the Market, 2)

Sample text

But some governments in developing countries have sought to manage structural reform to avoid what they saw as unsatisfactory elements (Krasner, 1985; Strange, 1988; Tilly, 1992). Even governments that have enthusiastically attempted to carry out structural reform programs have often found it difficult to initiate and sustain reform. There are many reasons why governments retreat from a commitment to an open trade environment. , 1991). Poor capacity to control expenditure, collect revenue, and manage debt can lead to 26 Post-communist structural reform fiscal deficits.

Tax increases are highly visible and frequently unpopular. Given these considerations, governments may chose to surreptitiously address deficits through policies that are not as visible and not as unpopular as fiscal austerity. Some governments have sought to give the appearance of adopting reforms when actually avoiding genuine structural changes. , 2001). It is also important to note that the states of Central Asia exist in a security environment as well as in a development environment. Security considerations often took precedence in decisions regarding development strategies.

Establishing private property rights is therefore a first step in the transition to the economically rational use of resources. The advantages of an open trade order are widely recognized among countries undergoing transition from state socialism to new forms of economic organization. Yet developing a policy framework that establishes national sovereignty while at the same time promotes international integration has proved challenging. A liberal or open trade order is characterized by an absence of non-economic factors influencing trade.

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