Download 31 Days Before Your CCENT Certification (Cisco Networking by Scott Bennett PDF

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2. At the transport layer, the request is broken down and encapsulated into a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) segment and is given a header identifying the source port, destination port, and sequence number. Some applications at the transport layer use the faster, less reliable User Datagram Protocol (UDP). 3. At the Internet layer, the TCP segments are encapsulated into Internet Protocol (IP) packets and are given an IP header with a source and destination IP address. 4. The network access layer uses the Ethernet protocol to encapsulate the packets into frames.

Firewalls video and voice appliances 3 The Layer 4 segments are encapsulated into IP packets. This layer deals with the path selection (routing) of the data over the network. IP version 6 (IPv6) and Network Address Translation (NAT) also operate at this level. Routers 2 Layer 3 packets are encapsulated into frames with headers using physical Media Access Control (MAC) addresses to identify source and destination. Ethernet, wireless local-area network (WLAN), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) operate at this layer.

The encapsulation process occurs in reverse as soon as the bits reach their destination. TCP requires a three-way handshake to establish a session for communication: 1. The sending host sends a SYN request for a connection. This request also synchronizes the sequence numbers for segment sending between the two hosts. 2. The destination replies with a SYN-ACK message acknowledging the request and synchronization. 3. The sending host responds with an ACK to complete the connection. The hosts can then communicate and send segments reliably.

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