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In 1998, 6,654 people applied for asylum in Spain, up from 4,730 in 1996, however by 2004 none applied. In 1565, the Spanish defeated an Ottoman landing on the strategic island of Malta, defended by the Knights of St. Cherokee elders advocated neutrality in the latest white man’s war and wanted no part of the Creek civil war.� Ridge however, was violently opposed to Tecumseh’s movement and gathered hundreds of men to join Andrew Jackson’s motley crew.� While “Old Hickory” gained the respect of his men during the march back from the aborted trip to New Orleans, as time wore on, with his men weary and under-provisioned, they lost their morale and wanted to go home.� Old Hickory then became draconian and executed a teenage soldier who became unruly, making an example of him.� He took on Ridge’s braves, about five hundred strong, and made Ridge a major in the Tennessee Militia, and Ridge called himself Major Ridge for the rest of his life.� The Cherokee were much better fighters than white soldiers, which Jackson readily admitted.� Friendly Creeks also were part of the fighting force.� Jackson did not trust his Cherokee fighters, but used them as high-grade cannon fodder.� In March 18 14, a force of 2,000 whites and 500 Cherokee and Creek cornered the Red Stick army at what is today called Horseshoe Bend, on the Tallapoosa River in Alabama.� Jackson had never led a battle before and his strategy amounted to firing cannons at their fortifications.� The action would have probably ended in failure if not for Cherokee braves who swam the river and attacked the Red Sticks from the rear.� Their efforts divided the Creek defense, and the whites then laid siege to the fortifications.� In that fierce battle, eight hundred of the thousand Red Sticks died.� The aftermath was as brutal as they come.� The whites were not content with mere scalps.� They skinned Red Stick bodies to make bridle reins, belts, and other fashionable items.� Jackson ordered cutting off the noses of dead Red Sticks to get an accurate body count.� He later ensured that body parts were distributed to the “ladies of Tennessee” as souvenirs.  � Davy Crockett, who fought at Horseshoe Bend, as did Sam Houston, wrote that the troops ate potatoes that had been basted in the fat of Red Stick warriors in another battle during the same campaign.� Those battles made Jackson an American hero.� Part of the Cherokee logic was that if they adopted the white man’s ways and fought with him, they might be able to survive without being eliminated from their lands, as most other tribes had already suffered.� On the way home, Tennessee volunteers passed through Cherokee lands and ravaged them.� When the Cherokee complained, Jackson was furious with them for making the scandal a public matter.  Although the Cre ek saw the Red Stick War as a civil war among the Creek and not against the USA, Jackson got himself appointed the treaty commissioner, and forced the Creek to cede the largest single cession the natives of the South ever made: 23 million acres, which was an area substantially larger than South Carolina.� Even land of white-friendly Creeks, who had fought with Jackson, was taken from them.� Part of the “ceded” land the Creek and Cherokee had shared.� Jackson and his friends bought up the choice lands that he forced the Creek and Cherokee to cede.� It was an early example of Jackson’s theory of government, in which the winner gets the “spoils.”� Jackson should not be treated too harshly here; George Washington did virtually the same thing, speculating in lands that his troops violently wrested from natives.� The Cherokee protested Jackson’s claim on the land that they shared with the Creek, and Jackson acted typically: he bribed most Cherokee chiefs into acquiescence.  � Whereas Washington’s plan called for negotiating with tribes individually, to play divide-and-conquer, Jackson introduced a new tactic, breaking up tribal lands into individual plots, then bribing and coercing individual landowners, cutting out the tribes altogether.  � Bribery and threat of attack were Jackson’s two primary methods of dealing with the Indians, especially when stealing their land, which Jackson openly admitted, saying that treaties were secured by playing to the Indians’ “avarice or fear.” Jackson’s tactics were openly fraudulent and characterized the legal treatment that the USA imposed on the natives.� During the century that the USA entered into treaties with native tribes, a common tactic was getting the chiefs roaring drunk, and when they had sobered up, they realized that somebody got them to “sign” a treaty that ceded their lands.� Treaties entered into at gunpoint, outright forgery of a chief’s signature onto treaties (not a difficult task, when a chief did not know how to read or write), straight bribes to a “chief” who was not empowered to negotiate for his tribe - those were typical American tactics.� When Major Ridge and another prominent chief discovered what the chiefs had “negotiated” with Jackson, the head chief was stripped of his powers.� They protested, but the U.
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